Seagreens Food Capsules 60
What's in it
Seagreens Food Capsules contain a unique wholefood blend of finely milled Seagreens® native wild Wrack seaweeds Ascophyllum, Fucus and Pelvetia. Seagreens have studied and documented the composition and health benefits of these specific species for over two decades.
Nothing added or extracted.
How to use
2 capsules (1 gram) each morning.
This pack is a 1 month supply.
In older age and to address health conditions and nutrition deficiencies, professional advice may be helpful before using higher daily amounts (up to 10/day over short periods).
For children use half the amount, under 12 we recommend Seagreens Iodine Lite.
Safe in permanent daily use for any age and health condition.
Benefits of Seagreens Food Capsules
Just 1 gram per day of the world's best seaweeds provides comprehensive dietary completeness every day. Contributes to healthy digestion, metabolism, circulation and cognition, all subject to research since 2008 with many published scientific papers.
British Isles and Nordic region. The best seaweed species are found in different locations. Seagreens has developed 5 food certified remote harvesting locations and production facilities in England, Iceland, Ireland, Norway and Scotland.
Country of origin
Produced by Seagreens Ltd, Great Britain
Nutritious Food Seaweed
What is Nutritious Food Seaweed?
NFS makes the quality of certified seaweed in a product transparent to consumers, with direct access to its nutritional profile. The total composition of NFS seaweed is monitored and must meet minimum and maximum criteria both for the good stuff (nutrients) and the bad stuff (contaminants), compliant with the most stringent international food safety standards. NFS is more than a quality standard, enabling the sustainable production of world class seaweed for human consumption which gives seaweed producers access to new markets at home and abroad. Rooted in the principles of biodynamic, organic and sustainable farming, with aspects of marine science, botany,nutrition and conservation, NFS has been administered by the Seaweed Health Foundation together with the Biodynamic Association since inception in 2014.
What is Trufil?
It means Seagreens® capsules contain at least what is stated. Standard industry practice allows 'average' content in capsules for speed of filling.
Profile of nutrients
Food Capsules per 2 capsules
1g = the content of 2 x 500mg capsules
1 g (gram) = 1000 mg (milligram) = 1,000,000 μg (microgram)
Such a comprehensive balance of nutrients is found in no other natural food but seaweed. We need a wide variety of land based foods, since each has only a little of the nutrition we need. But nutrient loss in agricultural soils as well as cheap availability of highly processed foods makes nutritional balance, especially of all the micronutrients, harder for us to achieve. Almost as old as the ocean, seaweed is an outstanding whole food which complements and fills the gaps in all land food and special diets.
Alanine 0.85 mg, Arginine 0.44 mg, Asparagine 0.5 mg, Aspartic acid 1.73 mg, Cystine and Cysteine* 0.2 mg, Cystathionine 0.5 mg, Glutamic acid 1.72 mg,, Glutamine 0.5 mg, Glycine 0.78 mg, Histidine 0.25 mg, Homocysteine 0.5 mg, Hydroxyproline 0.5 mg, Isoleucine 0.57 mg, Leucine 0.97 mg, Lysine 0.71 mg, Methionine 0.2 mg, 1- Methylhistidine 0.5 mg, 3-Methylhistidine 0.5mg, Ornithine 0.5 mg, Phenylalanine 0.78 mg, Phosphoserene 0.66 mg, Proline 0.21 mg, Sarcosine 0.5 mg, Serine 0.71 mg, Taurine 0.5 mg, Threonine 0.8 mg, Tryptophan 0.17 mg, Tyrosine 0.6mg, Valine 0.74 mg. *Cysteine is a non-essential methionine amino acid derivative formed in collaboration with vitamins B6 and B12 whereas cystine, a compound formed when two amino acids form a disulfide bond, is a more stable semi-essential amino acid. Both are important in protein synthesis, detoxification and metabolism and cystine is a substrate for the cystine-glutamate cell transport by which it is readily broken down to cysteine in the cell. Normal human hair and skin contains 10-14% cystine.
Amino acids are...
Simple organic compounds containing both a carboxyl and an amino group which can combine in linear arrays to form proteins in living organisms. There are several important amino acids which have no relation to protein, such as the neurotransmitter aminobutyric acid and betaines. There are 20 common amino acids all of which are present in Seagreens®, which is not the case in any other whole food. The simplest amino acid is glycine, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem of the vertebrate central nervous system.
Antioxidant capacity - principal antioxidant nutrients
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) 1685 μg, Calcium 12,600 μg, Copper 0.97 μg, Magnesium 7,907μg, Manganese (part of the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase) 95.16 μg, Polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent) 23,415.96 μg, Polyphenols (tannins) 30,358.46 μg, Potassium 22,316 μg, Selenium 0.11 μg, Superoxide dismutase 60.82 units, Vitamin A (carotenoids) 12.27 μg, Vitamin C 161.69 μg, Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 98.21 μg, Zinc 24.45 μg.
Nutrients widely present in body fluids and tissues that inhibit or remove potentially damaging products of oxidation or oxidizing agents in a living organism. Water-soluble antioxidants are effective in cells and blood plasma while lipid-soluble antioxidants protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation. In the presence of sufficient nutrients both can be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet. Antioxidant capacity of Seagreens® wrack seaweeds is higher than in commonly consumed fruit and vegetables, including green tea which has a similar polyphenol content by weight. Seagreens® antioxidants have been shown to inhibit and therefore prolong carbohydrate and lipid digestion with the potential to favourably influence insulin response and the glycemic index of food. They may be effective against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lower intestine. See also Polyphenols.
Glycine Betaine trace, Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Betaine trace, Delta Amino Valeric Acid Betaine trace, TML (Laminine) trace, L-Carnitine trace, Trigonelline trace.
Compound derivatives of glycine (an amino acid) characterised by high solubility in water which functions as an osmotic agent in plant tissue. 6 betaines have so far been identified in Seagreens®. See also Amino acids.
546.29 mg of which total dietary fibre is 471.21 mg including non-starch polysaccharides Algin, Fucose, Fucoidan, Mannitol, Methylpentosans, Laminarin, Mannuronic acid and Chlorophyll (antioxidant). Soluble fibre is approximately 20% of total dietary fibre, insoluble 80%.
Organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues including sugars, starch and cellulose, containing 2 parts hydrogen to 1 part oxygen, the same ratio as water, which can typically be broken down to release energy more readily than proteins or fats. Simple carbohydrates are sweet-tasting sugars which can be absorbed through the intestine into the bloodstream as monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) and disaccharides (lactose, sucrose and maltose) can be converted to their two monosaccharide bases in the digestive tract. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are commonly known as starches made up of chains of glucose molecules. Typical high starch foods include most grains (wheat, corn, oats and rice) and potatoes. Starch is also broken down in the digestive tract though more slowly than simple carbohydrate. Compared with most vegetables Seagreens® has a valuable ratio of soluble to insoluble fibre, with soluble fibre up to 20% of total dietary fibre. The wide variety of non-starch polysaccharides is also antioxidant, contributing to Seagreens® outstanding antioxidant capacity.
Carbohydrase 26.87 units, Lipase 19.76 units, Protease 414.87 units, Superoxide dismutase 60.82 units, Uronic acid 17.35 units.
Biological molecules that catalyse (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. Important in digestion, enzymes such as amylases and proteases break down large molecules (starch or proteins, respectively) into smaller ones, so they can be absorbed in the intestines. Starch molecules are too large to be absorbed from the intestine, but enzymes hydrolyze the starch chains into smaller molecules such as maltose and eventually glucose, which can then be absorbed. Other nutrients in Seagreens® have beneficial effects on certain digestive enzymes resulting in prolonged carbohydrate digestion and the steadier release of sugars.
Essential fatty acids
Alpha amino-n-butyric acid 5.33 μg, Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (antioxidant) 1,685 μg, Beta aminoisobutyric acid 5.33 μg, Docosadienoic acid 3.33 μg, Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 13.28 μg, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 13.91 μg, Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) 1,830.94 μg, EPA and DHA Omega-3 1,844.85 μg, Gamma amino-n-butyric acid 5.33 μg, Oleic acid 3,255.81 μg, Omega-3 4,520.05 μg, Omega-6 12,859.51 μg*, Omega 9 18,668.74 μg, Monounsaturated fatty acids 16,643.23 μg, Polyunsaturated fatty acids 13,163.22 μg, Saturated fatty acids 7,986.58 μg, Trans fatty acids (mono- and poly-unsaturates) 0.44 μg. *Omega 3:6 ratio 35%.
Essential fatty acids are...
EFAs including important-to-the-brain PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) are fatty acids that humans must obtain from food because the body cannot synthesize them. The term "essential" refers to fatty acids required for many neural and other biological processes, not those that solely act as fuel. Seagreens® Pelvetia seaweed (Channel Wrack) is particularly rich in essential fatty acids and one reason for its inclusion in Seagreens® Food Capsules and Food Granules blends.
Calcium (antioxidant) 12.6 mg, Magnesium (antioxidant) 7.9 mg, Nitrogen 7.6 mg, Phosphorus 4.6 mg, Potassium (antioxidant) 22.3 mg, Sodium 30.5 mg, Sulphur 33.6 mg.
Solid and soluble naturally occurring substances available in edible form ranging from so- called rare earths in the form of clays, to various sands and salts, animal tissue (flesh and bones) and plants which absorb them from the soil and the ocean as 'colloidal' (able to be bound) minerals which is the soluble form in which they present in Seagreens® seaweeds. Colloidal minerals are never intrinsically toxic. Seagreens® provide a natural balance of all the minerals and trace elements known to be present or needed in the human body. This is of special value because it is otherwise "necessary that we consume some 20 different vegetables in the proper proportions, and that these vegetables have been grown in soil that is sufficiently rich in nutrients and free from the many different chemical products now in common use" (Muller, Colloidal Minerals and Trace Elements, 2002). Colloidal minerals and trace elements of sea or plant origin can be 98% assimilated. Their absorption is 2.5 times greater than that of chelated minerals and 10 times greater than that of non-organic minerals. 7,000 times smaller than red blood cells, colloidal minerals are readily absorbed because they contain a negative charge, while the intestinal wall holds a positive charge, creating a chemcial gradient which concentrates colloidal minerals towards the intestinal mucous and enables their absorption. A chelated mineral is bound or held by amino acid molecules which naturally encircle mineral atoms. Isolated metallic atoms do not naturally exist in the body. In Seagreens®, with its ample amino acid component, minerals are bound to protein ions in the most effective form of chelation which comes closest to achieving a neutral pH, which assists their absorption. Minerals help regulate the body's elimination system and regenerate the blood at a molecular level. Mineral deficiency and imbalance thus puts us at risk of chronic toxicity, endemic in modern societies. Arsenic, for example, is essential for the survival of newborns. Dietary arsenic was eliminated in laboratory tests in rats with the result that their growth rate slowed, they lost their fur, seldom moved and their red blood cells became inactive. When colloidal arsenic was introduced these effects were reversed. In all cases the amount of the element significantly alters its physiological effect. In an ionised form, calcium has coagulant properties, so that a large dose will restore calcium to bone or tissue, whilst very small amounts in colloidal form endows it with regulating properties. All trace elements can be toxic if taken in excess and some, such as aluminium, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are toxic at very low levels and may occur as environmental pollutants. Where they exist in Seagreens® they do so below tolerable levels and due in part to its high content of colloidal minerals, Seagreens® is also a natural binding or chelating agent assisting in the elimination of such potentially toxic heavy metals and other toxic substances. Seagreens® can potentially restore to the body the most primal natural marine balance of minerals and trace elements still available. Like seawater which has a pH between 7.9 and 8.3, Seagreens® are the most alkalising of all foods. It should not be surprising that its simple addition to the daily diet can so dramatically regulate both an overly acidic gastric and intestinal environment and an overly alkaline cellular environment and in addition ameliorate the causes of all kinds of disorders and diseases. Due to its electrolytic composition, in nutrition "seawater fundamentally modifies the mineral content of different tissues by correcting ionic imbalances, which explains the effect it has on allergic diseases. In clinical settings the subjective and objective results were so favourable that it gave the impression of a specific curative effect" (Bensch, Therapeutic Properties of Seawater, Journal of Medicine, 1966).
23,416 μg (gallic acid equivalent)
Nutrients composed of four main classes - phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and lignans - principally found in fruits, berries, seeds, cereals and vegetables including onions, cocoa and tea. Lignans are derived from the amino acid phenylalanine. Polyphenols also include phenols and tannins. They are secondary metabolites of plants or the bacteria and fungi associated with them, which help protect the plant against aggressive pathogens and radiation. The sometimes confusing term 'phenolic' refers to phenol compounds within a larger class of organic 'polyphenol' compounds and all typically have valuable antioxidant properties which counter cellular damage and oxidative stress from free radicals (waste or by-products) arising from pollution, smoking and eating rancid or inflammatory foods as well as from the body's normal metabolic processes. Tannins are particular polyphenolic compounds, found particularly in wines, tea, cocoa and many other plants, consisting of gallic acid derivatives, which bind to and precipitate proteins and are strongly antioxidant. Polyphenols are widely indicated in the prevention of human degenerative diseases and are anti-carcinogenic. The level of polyphenols in Seagreens® is directly relasted to its high antioxidant capacity - see also Antioxidant capacity above.
Complex organic compounds of high molecular weight, essentially composed of at least 20 different amino acids in peptide linkages containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and usually sulphur, ubiquitous in plants and animals as the principal constituents of cell protoplasm. Each protein has a unique, genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its structure and function. Proteins serve in oxygen transport, muscle contraction, electron transport and other activities, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle tissue, hair, collagen, and as enzymes, hormones, immunoglobulins and antibodies. Seagreens® is a source of high quality vegetable protein, containing the full balance of amino acids, of particular use for vegetarians and vegans because most other plant proteins are low in one or other essential amino acids. For instance, grains tend to be short of lysine whilst pulses are short of methionine. This does not mean that vegetarians or vegans need go short on essential amino acids. Combining plant proteins, such as a grain with a pulse, leads to a high quality protein which is just as good, and in some cases better, than more plentiful protein from animal foods. The limiting amino acid tends to be different in different proteins, so when two different foods are combined, the amino acids in one protein can compensate for the one lacking in the other. This is known as protein complementing. Vegetarians and vegans eating a well-balanced diet based on grains, pulses, seeds, nuts and land and especially sea vegetables will be consuming a mixture of proteins that complement one another naturally. Beans on toast, cheese or a peanut butter sandwich, muesli with milk (soya or cow's) and rice with peas or beans, are all common examples of protein- complementing Seagreens® products could be included in any one of them. The body retains a short-term store of essential amino acids so as long as deficiencies are replenished within a day or two, a well-balanced vegetarian or vegan diet can supply all the protein we need.
Fructose trace, Glucose trace, Maltose trace, Sucrose trace, Galactose trace.
Simple monosaccharides like fructose, glucose and galactose, and compound disaccharides like maltose and sucrose, are closely related and found in the tissues of most plants. Lactose is found only in cow's milk, formed by the combination of a molecule of galactose with one of glucose and broken down in human digestion by the enzyme lactase. Some people are deficient in this enzyme and cannot digest lactose. The digestion of sugars releases energy into the bloodstream. Seagreens® have unique polysaccharides, some of which have been shown to have beneficial effects in digestion, in that they inhibit carbohydrate digesting enzymes which slows and prolongs the release of sugars of special interest in sports and diabetes.
Antimony 0.21 μg, Barium 9.47 μg, Beryllium trace, Bismuth trace, Boron 106.81 μg, Bromine 372.66 μg, Cerium 0.43 μg, Caesium 0.02 μg, Chromium 0.41 μg, Cobalt 0.38 μg, Copper 0.97 μg, Dysprosium 0.02 μg, Erbium 0.01 μg, Europium 7.01 μg, Flouride (acid soluble) 4.02 μg, Gadolinium 0.03 μg, Gallium 0.06 μg, Germanium 0.06 μg, Gold 0.09 μg, Hafnium trace, Holmium trace, Iodine 390 μg*, Iridium 0.01 μg, Iron 370.51 μg, Lanthanum 0.21 μg, Lithium 0.6 μg, Lutetium trace, Manganese 95.16 μg, Molybdenum 0.69 μg, Neodymium 0.17 μg, Nickel 1.4 μg, Niobium trace, Osmium trace, Palladium 0.01 μg, Platinum 0.26 μg, Praeseodymium 0.05 μg, Rhenium 0.07 μg, Rubidium 7.19 μg, Ruthenium trace, Samarium 0.03 μg, Scandium 0.05 μg, Selenium 0.11 μg, Silicon** 227.63 μg, Silver 0.05 μg, Strontium 665.34 μg, Tantalum trace, Tellurium 0.05 μg, Terbium trace, Thallium trace, Thorium 0.01 μg, Thuliam 0.08 μg, Tin 0.02 μg, Titanium trace, Tungsten trace, Uranium 0.26 μg, Vanadium 2.11 μg, Ytterbium 0.01 μg, Yttrium 0.16 μg, Zinc 24.45 μg, Zirconium 0.17 μg.
*For more iodine information and comparison of iodine levels in different Seagreens products see below 'Iodine levels in Seagreens® nutrition products'.
**Silicon and silica are different chemical species, the key difference being that silicon is an element whereas silica is a compound. Higher levels in seaweed may indicate the coincidental collection of sand during harvesting and is indicative of low grade seaweed unlikely to have been produced to standards for human nutrition.
Trace elements are...
Trace elements (or trace minerals) are metalloids or metallic elements which represent only the smallest part of a living organism (less than 1mg per litre of internal fluid) yet are essential in its growth, equilibrium and regulatory processes. Quantity is less important than quality and in natural sources the trace elements exist in ideally balanced proportions and forms which allow the body to recognise and ultilise them. A single trace element may have different roles in numerous biochemical processes in the body. More than 67 have been found in Seagreens® seaweed species, the 58 presented here being regularly monitored. Seagreens continues to work towards the widest possible field of analysis. Like other minerals, trace elements are solid and soluble naturally occurring substances available in edible form ranging from the rare earths in the form of clays, to various sands and salts, animal tissue (flesh and bones) and plants which absorb them from the soil as 'colloidal 'minerals (in a soluble suspended state). Colloidal minerals are never toxic and this is the soluble form in which they present in Seagreens® seaweeds. The human body and Seagreens® contain all the elements of the Periodic Table that are available to it in its environment. Seagreens® provide a natural balance of all the minerals and trace elements known to be present in the human body in colloidal form. It is otherwise "necessary that we consume some 20 different vegetables in the proper proportions, and that these vegetables have been grown in soil that is sufficiently rich in nutrients and free from the many different chemical products now in common use" (Muller, Colloidal Minerals and Trace Elements, 2002). Colloidal minerals and trace elements of sea or plant origin can be 98% assimilated. Their absorption is 2.5 times greater than that of chelated minerals and 10 times greater than that of non-organic minerals. 7,000 times smaller than red blood cells, colloidal minerals are readily absorbed because they contain a negative charge, while the intestinal wall holds a positive charge, creating a chemical gradient which concentrates colloidal minerals towards the intestinal mucous and enables their absorption. A chelated mineral is bound or held by amino acid molecules which naturally encircle mineral atoms. Isolated metallic atoms do not naturally exist in the body. In Seagreens®, with its ample amino acid component, minerals are bound to protein ions in the most effective form of chelation which comes closest to achieving a neutral pH, which assists their absorption. Minerals help regulate the body's elimination system and regenerate the blood at a molecular level. Mineral deficiency and imbalance thus puts us at risk of chronic toxicity, endemic in modern societies. Organic arsenic, for example, is essential for the survival of newborns. Dietary arsenic was eliminated in laboratory tests in rats with the result that their growth rate slowed, they lost their fur, they seldom moved and their red blood cells became inactive. When colloidal arsenic was introduced these effects were reversed. In all cases the amount of the element significantly alters its physiological effect. In an ionised form, calcium has coagulant properties, so that a large dose will restore calcium to bone or tissue, whilst very small amounts in colloidal form endows it with regulating properties. All trace elements can be toxic if taken in excess and some, such as aluminium, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are toxic at very low levels and may occur as environmental pollutants. Where they exist in Seagreens® they do so below tolerable levels and due in part to its high content of colloidal minerals, Seagreens® is also a natural binding or chelating agent assisting in the elimination of such potentially toxic heavy metals and other toxic substances. Seagreens® can potentially restore to the body the most primal natural marine balance of minerals and trace elements still available. Like seawater which has a pH between 7.9 and 8.3, Seagreens® are the most alkalising of all foods. It should not be surprising that its simple addition to the daily diet can so dramatically regulate both an overly acidic gastric and intestinal environment and an overly alkaline cellular environment and in addition ameliorate the causes of all kinds of disorders and diseases. Due to its electrolytic composition, in nutrition "seawater fundamentally modifies the mineral content of different tissues by correcting ionic imbalances, which explains the effect it has on allergic diseases. In clinical settings the subjective and objective results were so favourable that it gave the impression of a specific curative effect" (Bensch, Therapeutic Properties of Seawater, Journal of Medicine, 1966).
A (carotenoids) 12.27 μg, B1 (thiamin) 0.46 μg, B2 (riboflavin) 0.21 μg, B3 (niacin or vitamin PP) 54.69 μg, B5 (pantothenic acid and calcium pantothenate) 1.64 μg, B6 (pyridoxine) 0.55 μg, B9 (folate) 0.97 μg, B12 (cobalamin) trace, C 161.69 μg, D2 (ergocalciferol) trace, D3 (cholecalciferol) trace, E (alpha-tocopherol) with all the isomers of wheat germ 98.21 μg, H (biotin or vitamin B8) 0.06 μg, K (K3 phytomenadione, K1 phylloquinone, K2 menaquinone 4 and menaquinone 7) 1.28 μg.
Organic fat-soluble or water-soluble substances that are required in small amounts, necessary for numerous special functions and affected by environmental conditions such as light, heat and air. Food storage, processing and cooking can all reduce the level of vitamins in food. The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K which can be stored in the body and so dietary sources are not needed every day. The water-soluble vitamins are C and the B group which includes B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, folic acid, biotin and pantothenic acid. The body is less able to store water-soluble vitamins, with the exception of vitamin B12 which is stored in the liver, and so they are needed daily and are more easily lost during cooking. Vitamin A, C, D2, D3 and E are also antioxidants. Seagreens® contain an unusually comprehensive balance of small but significant amounts of all these vitamins.
Nutritional values (typical) per 100 g
Carbohydrate (total) 54.75g - of which
- Carbohydrate (available) 5.9g
- Sugars trace
Fat 2.25g - of which
- Saturates .57g
- Mono-unsaturates (cis) 1.4g
- Mono-unsaturates (trans) 0.08g
- Polyunsaturates 0.5g
- Polyunsaturates (trans) 0.01g
Dietary fibre (AOAC) 48.55g - of which
- Insoluble fibre 39.31g
- Soluble fibre 8.25g
Iodine levels in Seagreens® nutrition products
Uptake of iodine in the body* has been shown to be approximately 1/3rd of intake.
Figures are average iodine levels in micrograms over two decades harvesting Seagreens®. Iodine levels fluctuate according to natural variances in species and individual uptake.
|Food Capsules x 2||390μg||129μg|
|Food Granules x ¼ teaspoon||390μg||129μg|
|Iodine Lite Capsule x 1||320μg||106μg|
|The Mineral Salt per 1g||150μg||50μg|
* Combet E., et al. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine- insufficient women. British Journal of Nutrition, 9:1-9, 2014. A Seaweed Health Foundation study of Seagreens® at Glasgow University, Scotland. The British Health Food Manufacturers ' Association advises that iodine supplementation should not exceed 500μg per day. In the EU the European Food Safety Authority allows an 'upper tolerable daily intake' of 600μg, although some countries allow only 200μg. In Australia this figure is 250μg per day (The Australian Thyroid Foundation).
A naturally occurring mineral element, drawn from the ocean into the plant, transformed into soluble iodine (I2) and Iodide (I-), chelated (bound) to protein ions in the seaweed. Iodine contributes to normal thyroid, skin, nervous system and cognitive function, energy-yielding metabolism, and normal growth in children. Iodine levels in different seaweed species have predictable variances and averages which in Seagreens®, are particularly well documented. In Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum the average iodine level has changed over 10 years by 150 points from 720 to 870μg/g. In other Seagreens® species the average iodine ranges from 200μg/g in Palmaria (Dulse), to 262μg/g in Pelvetia (Channel Wrack), 425μg/g in Fucus (Bladder Wrack) and 589μg/g in Alaria (Winged Kelp, often wrongly called Wakame) with a wider natural variance than many other minerals. The British Health Food Manufacturers ' Association (HFMA) advises that iodine supplementation should not exceed 500μg iodine per day. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) allows an upper tolerable daily intake of 600μg day (EFSA NDA Panel, 2014) which permits the consumption of larger quantities of seaweed, among other iodine sources (seafood, meat and dairy products). In the USA this figure is 1100 μg per day. Iodine is mainly stored in the thyroid gland, and in a variety of tissues including mammary and salivary glands, eyes, gastric mucosa, and the cervix. Iodine receptors reject excessive iodine, which can be freely excreted in urine. "We found a difference in the amounts of iodine excreted consistent with the generally held view that most of the iodine will be excreted in urine if iodine stores are replete. We found that colonic fermentation is important to free iodine from the seaweed matrix (which) may delay iodine absorption with (the seaweed) iodine being released from the food over a longer period" (Combet et al, 2014). Naturally occurring halogens such as chlorine and bromide, also ubiquitous as industrial pollutants, may compete for iodine receptors in the body and reduce the bioavailability of total dietary iodine. A 2018 review in the international scientific journal Food Chemistry noted that "concerns over iodine toxicity from eating seaweed appear to be unfounded. However, seaweed must be sourced from near-pristine and clean environments where there is no concern for biological and chemical contamination or other environmental pollutants".